Different eras in Mexican history

Table summarizing the different eras in Mexican history, along with the status of indigenous civilizations like the Aztecs and Mixtecs during these periods:

EraDescriptionStatus of Indigenous civilizations
Pre-ColumbianDevelopment of early human civilizations like the Olmecs, Maya, Zapotecs, Toltecs, and Aztecs.Thriving and culturally rich societies like the Aztecs, Maya, and others.
Pre-HispanicFocuses on the civilizations present at the time of Spanish arrival, particularly the Aztec Empire.Aztec Empire predominant; others like Mixtecs present.
Colonial (1521-1810)Spanish colonization, establishment of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, spread of Christianity, and cultural mixing.Decline due to conquest and colonization; assimilation and marginalization.
War of Independence (1810-1821)Struggle for independence from Spain initiated by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla’s ‘Grito de Dolores’.Indigenous cultures further marginalized.
Post-Independence (19th Century)Establishment of Mexico as an independent nation, marked by political instability and territorial conflicts. Benito Juárez, a prominent figure in Mexican history and the first indigenous president of Mexico, belongs here.Continued marginalization; cultural preservation efforts begin.
Porfiriato (1876-1911)Era of Porfirio Díaz’s rule, characterized by economic modernization and political repression.Marginalization; some cultural integration.
Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)Armed struggle that transformed Mexican culture and government, started as a movement against Díaz.Indigenous rights and culture largely overlooked during revolution.
Modern Mexico (20th Century – Present)Significant political, economic, and social changes; rise of PRI, economic fluctuations, and cultural developments.Recognition and revival of indigenous cultures; ongoing struggles for rights and recognition.

This table provides an overview of the major historical periods in Mexico, highlighting the evolving status of its indigenous populations throughout these times.